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Electronic assemblies without PCBs – Electronic Products & TechnologyElectronic Products & Technology

Laser immediate structuring (LDS) is a distinctive good results story. For practically 20 many years, it has been possible to utilize electronic conductor paths instantly onto plastic parts all through series production. LDS allows the generation of electronic assemblies with versatile geometric designs. This approach enables electronic solutions (this sort of as sensible telephones, sensors or professional medical products) to develop into even more compact and more impressive. Automatic production processes also make this method extra economically appealing.

There is fewer and much less space available for electronic assemblies, so remedies are needed which switch regular printed circuit boards. LDS enables even further miniaturization and tends to make more and more intricate geometric models attainable. This is a stable and trusted approach that has set up by itself in quality-critical sectors these kinds of as clinical technological know-how or safety-suitable components for the automotive market.

LDS approach allows a few-dimensional assemblies

Direct laser structuring permits 3D-MID (Mechatronic Built-in Gadgets) assemblies to be manufactured. When applying 3D-MID, digital parts can be fitted right onto a 3-dimensional base entire body, devoid of circuit boards or connecting cables. The base body is produced using an injection moulding procedure, whereby the thermoplastic substance has a non-conductive, inorganic additive.

The composition of the conductor route is utilized making use of the LDS procedure.
LDS enables electronic assemblies to be built in versatile geometric styles. Good telephones, listening to aids and good watches are turning out to be more compact and a lot more highly effective many thanks to this procedure. Source: Harting

The additives in the material are “activated” by direct laser structuring so that the plastic material can accommodate the electrical conductor paths. The laser beam writes the locations meant for the conductor paths and results in a micro-tough framework. The unveiled steel particles variety the nuclei for the subsequent chemical metallisation. In this way, the electrical conductor paths are used to the parts marked by the laser. The other spots of the 3-dimensional foundation human body remain unchanged. The plastic component can then be assembled in common SMD procedures similar to a traditional PCB. It is also ideal for soldering in a reflow oven.

Adaptable application of laser technological know-how

As one particular of the largest suppliers of 3D-MID components outside of Asia, HARTING utilizes substantial-efficiency laser programs for the LDS method, with 3 lasers functioning in parallel, each offset by 45 levels. Thanks to an extra axis of rotation, factors can be processed by the laser simultaneously from all sides (360 levels). This technological innovation permits flexible geometric styles, these kinds of as reflector shells or LED lights, to be designed. Even with the negligible conductor path thickness of 16 to 20 μm, the conductor paths are nonetheless acceptable for demanding automotive elements or for apps with currents up to 10 A – for example for heating coils in cameras which are employed to protect against the optics from fogging up

Minimum distances in between the conductor paths (a): 50 – 150μm. Minimum width of the conductor paths (b): 50 – 150μm Radius (r): .2mm. Resource: Harting

Frequent improvements throughout the electronics advancement phase or new parts with modified dimensions can lead to pricey adjustments throughout traditional PCB creation. The laser layout, in distinction, can be adapted really flexibly by using the parameters of the laser’s control application. No alterations in the injection moulding are needed for this.

The generation of prototypes utilizing LDS is also less complicated in comparison to common processes. HARTING can create the plastic foundation human body working with LDS-compatible substance and 3D printing. Injection moulding can also be applied with reasonably priced prototype applications.

New tendencies in the LDS system

Various aspects of LDS technologies have been improved and even further formulated about the earlier handful of a long time.

  • The performing space of the laser has been enlarged from 160 x 160 x 80 mm to 200 mm x 200 mm x 80 mm, therefore enabling a higher packing density and the processing of even bigger factors.
  • The operating speed of the laser can be doubled to 4 m/s by optimizing the servo units and mirrors which guidebook the laser beam, thereby drastically lowering the processing time.
  • The advancement of the optics enables the use of a laser with a diameter of 100 μm and a laser with a high-quality emphasis of 50 μm for processing even lesser buildings.

HARTING is the only 3D-MID producer in the entire world that has a laser process with 3 good aim optics of 50 μm. Even more compact conductor path gaps can be attained thanks to this fine focus laser. As a result, numerous conductor paths can be created on the exact same element and a greater packing density can be applied. This is utilised for protection technology, amongst other matters, mainly because the intently spaced and intertwined conductors are capable of triggering basic safety alarms from even the smallest actual physical interference.

Innovations in resources and economics

Only specially chosen thermoplastics are licensed for the LDS course of action these are readily available from stock. The procedure can be even further enhanced with purchaser-precise changes to the plastic material:

  • HARTING makes use of a course of action which provides LDS additives to non-qualified elements to make them MID-appropriate.
  • Distinct RAL or Pantone colors can be obtained with MID plastics by applying color pigments and exclusive LDS additives.
  • By picking out ideal additives, specific RF attributes can also be implemented, relying on the frequency array.

Digital factors – these kinds of as LEDs, ICs, photodiodes and sensors – can be hooked up directly onto the part carrier. The assembled element carriers can then be processed as standard SMD components. Supply: Harting

To additional enhance the price tag-success of the manufacturing approach, HARTING relies on automated robotic systems. The LDS laser technique is equipped with a rotary indexing table so that a part can be inserted or removed whilst a different component is nevertheless becoming processed. The in-feed and unloading techniques are automated by HARTING working with robotics. This raises throughput and autonomy, though also enabling integration into automated creation processes. An extra automation step is delivered in the course of the injection moulding system. In this article, too, a robotic will take over the removal of the injection moulded parts. The use of robotics also improves the specific reproducibility of the processes and, thus, general product high-quality.

Far more expansion for 3D-MID

The 3D-MID caps defend the electronics from unauthorized obtain both mechanically and electronically. A remarkably exact meandering composition detects every single obtain, no matter how tiny, and consequently helps prevent theft. Supply: Harting

HARTING experiences amplified need for MID projects and has even further expanded the 3D-MID division by investing in machinery and by obtaining a competitor’s enterprise. Innovative in-home products and solutions are also contributing to further more expansion. HARTING has developed a option dependent on 3D-MID know-how which replaces versatile PCBs with a element provider. Rather of making use of a flex-PCB, the ingredient provider can be equipped instantly with electronic factors, so saving up to two thirds of the expense.



HARTING 3D-MID is providing the entire value chain for 3D-MID technologies from a solitary supply, which includes growth/prototyping of client-distinct merchandise, injection moulding, laser direct structuring, metallization, assembly and connection technologies, as well as last inspection. Its core business is the production of mechatronic components for car production, field, professional medical technology and sensor devices.

Dirk Rettschlag, challenge manager & IE MID at Harting MID.